Although it is common for the majority of children and adolescents to feel sad or down in the dumps at times, may be a more severe phenomenon known as depression. 


These young people, who are often as " clinically " depressed, sad , hopeless, or irritable for weeks or even months, they may lose interest in activities that were once enjoyable ( for example, playing with friends ) , their eating habits often change ( ie, they may eat or sleep more or less than usual) , and may have difficulty in thinking and pay attention , even to TV programs or games. The depressed children often display an irritable mood rather than a depressed mood, and symptoms vary depending on age and decline in school performance . They may be as , , employees, or not sure . The diagnosis may be delayed or missed when symptoms are interpreted as  hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) , complicating the diagnosis and treatment of both.
Of particular interest are the young people who clinically depressed may think or talk much about death as well as some depressed children have more specific thoughts about suicide or evil . Often children and teenagers may have similar symptoms when they are grieving the loss of someone close to them . In clinical 
 even when the child has not suffered a loss or a sad event .

of mild or moderate depression , the study focused on paroxetine and imipramine .

For children , adolescents, young adults and probably between 18-24 years , there is an increased risk of both suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior in patients treated with SSRIs. For adults, it is unclear whether SSRIs affect the risk of suicide . A review found some connections : an increased risk , and one third the risk in those 25-65 years old and a decreased risk in those over 65 years. Epidemiological data have shown that the widespread use of antidepressants in the new "SSRI - era", is associated with a significant decrease in suicide rates in many countries with traditionally high rates of suicide. The causality of the relationship is inconclusive.



Some depressed adolescents appear sad, others do not, in fact, irritability rather than depression, it is often the predominant symptom in depressed adolescents and adolescents. A depressed teenager may be hostile, grumpy, or easily lose your cool, and try unexplained pains, which are also common symptoms of depression in young people.


Left untreated, teen depression can lead to problems at
 tragedy such as homicidal violence or suicide. But with the proper help, depression in adolescence is highly treatable.


The number of depressed women is twice that of men. This is due in part to syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression. As for the signs and 
 feelings of guilt, sleep too much, eat too much, and there is an increase in weight. Women are also more likely to suffer from seasonal affective disorder.



The major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as recurrent depressive disorder , clinical depression , major depression , unipolar depression , or unipolar disorder ) is a mental disorder accompanied by low self-esteem , and loss of interest or pleasure in activities normally pleasant .

 This group of symptoms ( syndrome ) was named , described and classified as one of the mood disorders in the 1980 edition of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The term "depression" is ambiguous. E ' is often used to denote this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or to lower mood but lack clinical significance . Major depressive disorder is a disabling condition that adversely affects family life , work or academic performance of a person , sleep and eating habits , we can say overall health. Worldwide, about 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide , and up to 60 % of people who commit suicide have depression or another mood disorder.

The diagnosis of major depression is based on the experiences reported by the patient , behavior reported by relatives or friends , and a mental status examination . There is no laboratory test for major depression , although physicians generally apply for a test to the physical conditions that can cause similar symptoms . If depressive disorder is not detected in the early stages , can lead to a slow recovery and affect or worsen the person's physical health . Standardized screening instruments can be used to detect major depressive disorder . The most common period of onset is between 20 and 30 years, with a peak later, between 30 and 40 years.

 Usually, patients are treated with antidepressant drugs and , in many cases, also receive psychotherapy or counseling , although the effectiveness of the drug in cases of mild or moderate depression is  with associated self-neglect or a significant risk of harm to themselves or others. Only a small proportion are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) , under a short-acting with general anesthesia. The disease is highly variable . Depressed individuals have shorter life expectancies than those to medical illnesses and suicide . It is not clear if the drugs affect the risk of suicide .

The understanding of the nature and causes of depression has evolved over the centuries , though this understanding is incomplete and has left many aspects of depression as the subject of discussion  social , hereditary , evolutionary and biological . The use of short- or long-term drugs can cause and worsen both depressive symptoms . Psychological treatments are based on theories of . Most biological theories focus on serotonin and other chemicals, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are naturally present in the brain and that facilitate communication between nerve cells .

Determining causes

Determining causes

This notion is classified as a mental disorder in which a decreased mood , lost the ability to enjoy life , is being thought processes . Increasingly, the patient in the doldrums have adverse judgments generally negative , pessimistic view of all the events that happen around . In such a state of confusion arise movements, lethargy, the decreased self-esteem , loss of interest in work , the usual pursuits of life.

Depression era's disease
Depression era's disease
Long-term continuation of mental disorders - from four to six months - this is a serious reason to go to a specialist , who will conduct an effective treatment.

the loss of a loved one ;
loss of job, social status .
With these causes of disease suggests a reactive depression. However, the disorder may be caused by endogenous factors - disturbances in the concentration of neurotransmitters. These substances according to their functional characteristics are similar to the hormones affect brain function.

Thus , the causes of the disease can serve as both psychosocial physiological factors , genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of depression
The main symptoms of mental disorders are the following symptoms :

Depressed mood , state of depression that occur in the course of a long period of time ( from fourteen days or more ) . Bad mood patient does not depend on any external factors.
Anhedonia - lack of interest in activities that once seemed attractive, inability to experience pleasure , pleasurable sensations .
Pronounced manifestation of fatigue, severe fatigue , lack of strength , will, on any activity . This condition is characterized by stability .
Additional symptoms that indicate that the treatment is necessary - such features as :

negative assessment of life ( pessimism ) ;
feelings of guilt , worthlessness ;
anxiety and fear ;
low self-esteem ;
thoughts of death , the desire to commit suicide ;
lack of a stable appetite , with marked reduction or weight gain;
insomnia, dissomnii - sleep disturbances , insomnia .

Treatment of depression - how to choose the right doctor?
Expert in the field of mental disorders is a psychiatrist. Unfortunately , in a society is common set of preconceptions, prejudices, because of which bring myself to go to a psychiatrist rather difficult . Therefore, people are beginning to look for an alternative , I think you can go to a neurologist or a therapist or a psychologist , or ( this happens !) - To a psychic . The latter option is not even worth discussing .

Few people know that a psychologist - it's not a doctor . Psychological education is different from the medical , diagnosis is beyond the competence of a psychologist. This specialist can have a very substantial assistance to the patient , but only after a diagnosis has already been installed . Set the same diagnosis can only be a doctor. Therefore, to begin treatment with an address to the psychologist unfollow .

Engaged in psychotherapy therapists, psychologists . If you decide to go to a therapist , it makes sense to find out who is an expert on education that you have chosen . If he's a doctor , it's okay . Most people go to a neurologist . Traditionally accepted that neurology and psychiatry - a very close degree . However, you do not go to a psychiatrist to treat sciatica . Similarly treat this condition should not be a neurologist .

It is best to overcome prejudices and to consult with a psychiatrist to help in treatment. Mental Health Act , which operates in Russia for more than 10 years , has canceled the infamous " psychiatric records ", so the appeal to a psychiatrist today, does not entail any unpleasant social consequences . A benefit of this treatment can be high.

How to avoid the development of depression?
Here'sa few tips to help you prevent the occurrence of the development of the disease:

should not be required to their excessive demands ;
than focusing on their own failure , do not blame yourself - calm down and gathered his thoughts , analyze your mistake and choose the most appropriate solution ;
stick composed by you , the most convenient , the daily routine ;
Praise yourself for personal achievement , encourage yourself with pleasant things - buying new clothes , going to the theater or cinema, leave travel ;
Do daily exercise, exercise alone or in sports centers , fitness clubs ;
systematically relax as much as you like - with your friends , loved ones , family or alone;
Try as much as possible to communicate with the people dear to you .
Remember: If you have already received treatment for depression or have ever experienced such a mental state , you should take steps to prevent recurrence of the disease. Need to visit a therapist regularly .

How to live with ?
Effective treatment of depression should start first of all with the proper organization of the patient's life . This is not so simple. The concept of " organization of life" includes many components , and each of them has a special meaning to talk .

A few words to relatives, friends of the patient in the recovery period
Support from the family plays a crucial role in treatment of depression. Unfortunately , almost everyone who has had a similar disorder , can share his experiences when relatives , friends demanded " pull themselves together ", " fun and forget about everything ." Former patients are told how annoyance experienced members of the family as they wondered inactivity patient, as they say, " I also do not want to go to work, but I'm coming! "

Please keep in mind that although depression is not like an " ordinary disease" (if it does not hurt, the temperature is normal , blood pressure - too) , this is a real disease , and more painful than most . Therefore, do not reproach the patient to laziness, promiscuity , whim or weakness. Do not injure his reproaches, do not ask what he can not. Fulfilling these requirements , it 'll do him already substantial support and assistance . In addition, you can encourage him by telling about the people who have been treated and recovered ( among your friends are sure there will be ) .

So, if your loved one is receiving treatment of depression , we recommend the following:

do not ignore the requests of the complaint;
not to make any sudden accusations , comments;
not allowed to become sick too often left alone ;
Avoid trite consolations ;
try to convince the person - will soon be depressed , treatment will certainly help , the patient will recover very soon ;
prevent the development of feelings of guilt for the patient;
be calm , confident, at the same time we show compassion , understanding ;
not willfully be cheerful ;
capture the attention of your loved one to a positive change in the course of the disease ;
should be held in strict observation of the daily routine .

Recommendations to the patient :
At the time until the condition is severe , you have to do only one thing: to listen to the advice of doctors in a timely manner to take prescribed medication. In no event during treatment is not necessary :

To make responsible decisions. For example , many people during the depression came to the conclusion that they have to leave their jobs because feel professionally incompetent . Do not do it ! Self-assessment during the illness grossly understated. It's just a symptom of the disease . Postpone the decision until recovery.
Reproach myself that something was done . A lot of people in your state blamed himself for not having washed the dishes, swept the floor is not , not cooked dinner. Do not blame yourself for it! Inability to cope with the usual everyday things - also a symptom of depression, and to overcome the symptom of the disease at will is impossible ( you can not force the will to stop a runny nose !)
To think that your mood will never improve . Depression - always a temporary condition . From a theoretical point of view, one can not even be treated, this condition will still be held . Just now, stupid bear for too long because modern medicines (such as reksetin ) significantly accelerate recovery.

Depression - what is it

Depression - what is it ?

Being in a bad mood , we often say " I'm depressed ." But this is only a domestic value of the word.
Psychologists often talk about seasonal depression - a reduction of mood and performance at certain times of the year. Describes the autumn , winter , spring depression . It turns out that the only time of the year without depression - this summer ?

Depression - what is it ?
Depression - what is it ?

The medical concept of depression - it's not just a bad mood, as commonly believed, but serious disease that has certain symptoms. It can be at any time of the year , but often begins with seasonal depression . Depression is a disease in a group of diseases called " affective disorders ", i.e. mood disorders.
Symptoms of depression.
The main symptoms are:
1. Reduced ( depressed , depression , melancholy ) mood.
2 . Loss of interest and pleasure in things and activities that were once enjoyable.
3 . Reduction of energy , which leads to fatigue and reduced activity.
In addition, there are additional symptoms that are often attached to the core symptoms of depression include:
- Reduced ability to focus and concentrate .
- Thoughts on the guilt and self-blame .
- Gloomy and pessimistic vision of the future.
- Thoughts and actions related to suicide or self-harm .
- Sleep disorders - insomnia , difficulty falling asleep or early awakening.
- Violations of appetite - most of his absence and loss of weight.
- Violation of sexual desire .
- A significant confusion surrounding or excessive fussiness .
If these are typical symptoms last at least two weeks , every day , and take up a large part of the day , in this case we can talk about depression as a disease that must be treated


Q: How is Depression?
A: In the treatment of depression you have to take into account different strategies. The most important are represented by psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, but it would be a mistake not to take into account other types of therapy less common, but which must be taken into account in some special situations and / or when the two approaches prove ineffective election: is the case, for example, the light therapy in disorder to seasonal trend; electroconvulsive therapy (TEC) in the depressions resistant or when the use of drugs is contraindicated; transcranial magnetic stimulation (SMT) recent introduction of a technique that seems effective in depression and also in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the vagus nerve stimulation, this newly introduced active in certain forms of treatment-resistant depression.

Q: There are many psychotherapeutic techniques: they are all equally effective?
A: In fact, more than 200 have been described psychotherapeutic techniques, from the classical Freudian psychoanalysis to the many techniques more or less reliable and more or less "personal" (applied, that is, by those who have proposed and a few others). Although it is difficult to evaluate in a standardized way the effectiveness of psychotherapy, two methods have been objectively proven effective in depressed patients, cognitive therapy (or cognitive-behavioral) and interpersonal therapy.

Q: What is cognitive therapy?
R: Cognitive therapy is a short-term therapy (15-20 sessions) that aims to identify certain fixed patterns of reasoning and interpretation of reality, the so-called "cognitive distortions," which can be defined as erroneous ideas that affect the way which we see and evaluate ourselves. These cognitive distortions can be considered as the cause of severe and persistent negative emotions, which are the symptoms of the disorder. Once these cognitive distortions, cognitive therapy tries to fix them and integrate them with other thoughts more objective, or at least more functional well-being of the person.
This is also called cognitive-behavioral therapy because this therapy also tries to change the relationship that exists between the situations that are the basis of the difficulties and emotional reactions and behavior that the person has in those circumstances, by learning how to react new and positive.

1. The most important thing about depression
The depressions are a widespread disease. A depression is 
however, can be successfully treated. There is no reason to be ashamed of some
symptoms of depression.
2. Who suffers from depression?
A depression is a disease that occurs frequently and that can affect
anyone. It is assumed that about 20% of the population becomes ill at least once
in the life of depression. More than 4 million people in Germany are sick to
moment of depression. The depressive disorders are therefore diseases
psychic and more frequent. The women will be affected about 2 times more frequently
of men.
3.Cos' is depression?
Suffer from depression does not just mean being sad or feel sorry because of
a loss. A depression is a functional disorder (such as diabetes or
high blood pressure) of the psychic functions, which affects your thoughts and feelings,
on your physical health and your behavior.
A depression can be caused or facilitated by the particular conditions of life (for
example extremely stressful conditions or strong 
make it harder for a complete cure. A depression is not a weakness
personal, but a medical condition that should be treated.
Depression can be caused by various circumstances:
... Family history and causes of hereditary origin,
Life experiences ... particularly heavy,
... Other medical conditions,
Certain medicines ...,
... Abuse of alcohol or drugs,
... Other mental disorders.